—Experimental modeling of the interaction of eclogitic and lherzolitic garnets with CO2 fluid was carried out on a multianvil high-pressure apparatus of the “split-sphere” type (BARS) in platinum ampoules with inner graphite capsules, using a buffered high-pressure cell with a hematite container, at a pressure of 6.3 GPa and in the temperature range 950–1550 °C. It has been established that the main interaction processes at 6.3 GPa and 950–1250 °C are partial dissolution, recrystallization, and carbonation of garnet which lead to the formation of magnesian carbonate, kyanite, and coesite, a decrease in Mg contents in the recrystallized garnet, and the formation of carbonate, silicate, and oxide inclusions in it. Under these conditions, crystallization of metastable graphite and growth of diamond on the seed at ≥1250 °C were observed. In the temperature range 1350–1550 °C, the garnet underwent partial dissolution and recrystallization in CO2 fluid; no carbonation took place. These processes were accompanied by a decrease in the portion of the grossular component in the garnet and by the enrichment of the fluid phase with calcium. We have established the indicative characteristics of garnet that interacted with CO2 fluid: zoning, with low contents of CaO and MgO in the rims of crystals relative to the cores, and the presence of carbonate, kyanite, coesite, and CO2 inclusions. The compositions of the produced garnet and carbonates are consistent with the data on these minerals in mantle peridotite and eclogite parageneses and in inclusions in diamonds, which suggests a significant role of metasomatism with the participation of CO2 fluid in the evolution of deep-seated rocks and in the diamond formation. In this experimental research, we have first studied the processes of diamond crystallization and determined the boundary conditions for diamond growth in the system silicate–carbonate–CO2, which simulates natural diamond formation media. In general, the established regularities can be regarded as potential indicators of mantle metasomatism and mineral formation with the participation of CO2 fluid.

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