—This paper presents an alternative variant of stratigraphic subdivision of the upper Riphean–Vendian deposits (approximately corresponding to the Neoproterozoic Erathem of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC)) of the Bashkir Mega-Anticlinorium (BMA), based on the modern concepts of changes in the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere (and, accordingly, in the climate and the course of sedimentary processes) in the period ~1000–540 Ma, with regard to the results of recent studies and the proposals for improving the Russian General Stratigraphic Scale (GSS) of the Precambrian. The strict necessity of subdividing chronostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic units is shown. The presented data give grounds to regard the Zil’merdak Formation as a Group and assign three of its lower formations to the Middle Riphean (Yurmatinian). It is shown that the period of accumulation of the Karatau Group (comprising the Katav, Inzer, Min’yar, and Uk formations) was significantly shorter than the duration of the Late Riphean (Karatavian). Special attention is focused on the age of the Uk Formation (analysis of the existing data made it possible to refine its stratigraphic position): It formed, most likely, in the period 780–740 Ma. A high uncertainty of the stratigraphic position of the overlying geologic bodies is demonstrated. The Bakeevo, Tolparovo, Suirovo, and Kurgashla formations must be regarded as part of the Terminal Riphean (Arshinian). The Arsha Group, comprising the Bainas, Makhmutovo, Igonino, and Shum formations in the Tirlyan trough and represented by the Krivaya Luka Formation in the Krivaya Luka syncline, should not be totally assigned to the Terminal Riphean. It is proposed to exclude the Bakeevo Formation and the Tolparovo–Suirovo sequence from the Asha Group, because these deposits are, most likely, a modification of the Arsha Group located on the western flank of the BMA. The Uryuk Formation is probably of pre-Vendian age. The current contradictory data on the stratigraphy of the supra-Uryuk unit of the Asha Group are interpreted. The ages of the geologic bodies composing the Group and its stratigraphic interval still call for a thorough study.