—The homologous series of high-molecular weight dimethylalkanes (HMWDMAs) with either odd- or even-numbered carbon chains in the range from C19–20 to C30–31 have been identified in organic matter from recent and partially lithified deposits of Siberia and the Russian Platform by chromatography–mass spectrometry. The first homologous series is represented by even-numbered 3,4-HMWDMAs followed by the alternation of odd-numbered 3,5-HMWDMAs, even-numbered 3,6-HMWDMAs, and odd-numbered 3,7-HMWDMAs. The most abundant are 3,7-dimethylalkanes. The microbial origin of high-molecular weight dimethylalkanes is the most likely explanation for their presence in the fossil organic matter. The precursors of HMWDMAs might have been tetra- and diether lipids of archaea and bacteria. It is assumed that HMWDMAs and other immature hydrocarbons from great depths (SV-27 and SG-6 superdeep boreholes) result from the decomposition of asphaltenes, which occluded the related compounds inside their structure during the early stages of generation and carried them unchanged throughout the “oil window”.