—The Anyue gas field is located in the middle part of the Sichuan Basin, SW China. It occurs in the oldest marine carbonate strata and is characterized by the highest degree of thermal evolution and the largest gas reserves in China. A significant breakthrough was made with the Gaoshi-1 risk-taking exploration well deployed in 2011. As of 2015, the proven geologic reserves of natural gas were 657.4 billion m3, and the total gas reserves including proven reserves, controlled reserves, and predicted reserves exceeded 1.5 trillion m3. A total of three sets of gas-bearing strata are developed in the Anyue gas field in a descending sequence: The gas reservoir in the Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation (Є1l) is treated as a structure-lithologic gas reservoir; the gas reservoir in Section No. 4 of the Dengying Formation (Z2dn4) is a structure-stratigraphic gas reservoir; and the gas reservoir in Section No. 2 of the Dengying Formation (Z2dn2) is a structural gas reservoir. A comparative analysis of the gas sources has shown that the gas Cambrian of reservoirs was mainly from mudshale of the lower Cambrian Maidiping and Qiongzhusi formations and the gas of the Dengying Formation reservoirs was from mudshale of the Qiongzhusi Formation and mudstone of Section No. 3 of the Dengying Formation. All gas reservoirs are referred to as reservoirs of dry gas with medium or low contents of sulfur and medium contents of CO2. Gas reservoirs in Є1l are characterized by a large burial depth, a high temperature, and a high pressure, while the gas reservoirs in Z2dn2 and Z2dn4 are characterized by an ultralarge depth, a high temperature, and a normal pressure. The accumulation of gas reservoirs is controlled mainly by two factors. The distribution of hydrocarbon generation centers is controlled by the late Sinian–early Cambrian intracratonic rift, which acts as effective updip sealing conditions for gas reservoirs in the Dengying Formation. The late Sinian–early Cambrian Gaoshiti–Moxi paleouplift experienced a long-term inherited development, which controlled the generation and distribution of three sets of large-scale high-quality reservoirs in Z2dn4, Z2dn2, and the Longwangmiao Formation and the generation of three sets of high-quality reservoir–caprock assemblages. An inherited giant structural trap with a longterm stable development is always a favorable zone for petroleum accumulation.