—A model of the formation of the Teletskoe–Chulyshman metamorphic belt (TCMB) in Gorny Altai has been elaborated. The estimated pressure (not exceeding 3–4 kbar) and temperature (about 740 °C) indicate an increased regional crustal thermal gradient equal to 60–90 °C/km during the formation of the metamorphic belt. The age of migmatites of the Chulyshman complex has been evaluated at 483.9 ± 5.7 Ma (Early Ordovician) by U/Pb (SHRIMP) zircon dating. The paleogeodynamic setting of the TCMB formation and the protolith nature are identified based on the geochemical and petrochemical parameters of the metamorphic rocks. Structural parameters and numerical modeling show that the Chulyshman migmatite–gneiss complex is an apical part of the thermal-dome structure formed under the thermal impact of a magmatic basic heat source in the base of the crust and displaced to the relevant depths via thrusts and crustal extrusion during the Early Ordovician accretion–collision event. Matching the metamorphism parameters and the numerical-modeling results for the crustal thermal regime, we determined the rate of the anatectic front displacement along the thrust to be at least 6 cm/yr.