—Integrated geological and geochemical studies were performed for lignite from the Yenisei middle reaches, represented by carbonized fragments of trees with high germanium contents. Geochemical characteristics of terrigenous sediments with Ge-bearing lignite are determined. The chemical and mineral compositions, textures, and structures of carbonized wood fragments were studied. Scanning of individual cross sections of lignite fragments has revealed a regular distribution of germanium and impurity elements. Consistent patterns of the formation of Ge-containing lignites have been established, as well as the processes of their posthydrothermal transformation, which led to the impoverishment of the primary contents of the valuable component and to the input of a number of impurity elements. The latter formed rims over the lignite fragments and microveinlets with sulfide mineralization. The hypothesis has been put forward that germanium mineralization formed in lignites of the Kas basin, in particular, the Serchanskoe deposit.