This study presents data on concentrations of n-alkylbenzenes, n-alkylnaphthalenes, phytanylnaphthalene, and methylphytanylnaphthalene in representative crude oils of Tatarstan. The results of the study reveal the elevated concentrations of C19, C21, and C23 homologues of n-alkylbenzenes and n-alkylnaphthalenes, which can be considered as biomarkers. The proposed procedure for comprehensive quantification of this group of biomarkers can be used as an efficient tool to study oils from the major petroleum basins of Russia. Based on the results of the study, four genetic groups of oils in Tatarstan have been distinguished: (1) oils from the north and northwest (Bir saddle, Lower Kama system of linear faults, and Saraily saddle), (2) oils from Devonian terrigenous reservoirs within the South Tatar arch and Melekes depression, (3) oils from Carboniferous reservoirs, and (4) oils from Devonian carbonate reservoirs. All these oils belong to the same genetic macrotype. Based on the results of this study, the sedimentary sections of the Melekes depression cannot be regarded as potential source rocks. It is assumed that oil has migrated to the northern part of the region from the north or east. Some of the possible migration routes for oils from the remaining part of Tatarstan are from the southeast and/or south.