The Maurynya section exposed on the northwestern margin of West Siberia is one of few continuous sections of the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary deposits in Boreal regions. In the meantime, it can be considered a reference section for the transitional Volgian–Ryazanian beds formed in shallow water environments of the West Siberian sea basin. This study is a synthesis of the new data with previous results of lithologic, paleontological, biostratigraphic, and (O, C, Sr) isotope studies of the Upper Volgian–lowermost Ryazanian of the Maurynya section. It has been established that the beginning of the Cretaceous (corresponding to the middle Late Volgian) is associated with a sharp increase in species number and diversity of cephalopods and bivalve mollusks on the northwestern margin of the West Siberian sea basin. This can be explained by an increase in its depths and their stabilization at a level which appeared optimal for the habitat of nekton, nektobenthos, and benthic fauna communities, superimposed on the general trend of warming. At the same time, the percentage of phytoplankton significantly increased, indicating the onset of transgression, which affected largely coastal landscapes and type of vegetation: The forests dominated by conifers were gradually succeeded by forests mostly composed of Ginkgoaceae.