The Jurassic growth of mountain ranges along the southern edge of the Siberian platform occurred in an active tectonic setting related to the closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean. The oceanic subduction and subsequent continent collision events induced compressive deformations at the platform boundary. Understanding the paleogeography related to the Mesozoic closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean requires dating and correlation of the Jurassic Prisayan Formation in the Irkut basin and Tugnuyskaya Formation in southwestern Transbaikalia. This work presents structural and paleobotanic results within both formations. 40Ar/39Ar dating of underlying volcanics from the upper member of the Ichetuyskaya Formation is used to refine the age of the sediment series and provide probable correlation. The results show that the Tugnuyskaya Formation initiated at the end of the Middle Jurassic–beginning of the Late Jurassic and was not coeval with the Prisayan Formation, whose upper fine-grained members were deposited in the early Middle Jurassic. 40Ar/39Ar dating of volcanics from the upper member of the Ichetuyskaya Formation yielded a Middle Jurassic age of 167.7 ± 1.2 Ma (Bajocian to Bathonian). The paleogeographic data analysis based on facies and mineralogical composition of sediments and on a study of source areas from Sm–Nd data and the U–Pb ages of detrital zircons from the deposits in the southern Irkut basin indicates that the deposition of the Prisayan Formation was followed by the intensification of relief building along the southern edge of the Siberian Platform. Our geochronological data show that active tectonic deformations in southwestern Transbaikalia evidenced in the volcanoclastic Ichetuyskaya Formation in the Tugnuy basin also occurred during the Middle Jurassic. The uppermost sediments of the Tugnuy basin were deposited at the end of the Middle Jurassic–Late Jurassic in a quiet tectonic setting with low relief and lacustrine-boggy depositional environments.