The general evolution of planets in the Solar System is discussed with a focus on the structure and history of Venus compared with the Earth. The history of the planets of the terrestrial group has been similar and included at least six correlated stages. Many common features the terrestrial planets shared in their early and late evolution have been due to their common origin from the protoplanetary gas-and-dust nebula and plume magmatism widespread on all the planets of the terrestrial group. The characteristic features of the structure and evolution of Venus are most brightly manifested in the specific composition of its atmosphere and of plume magmatism. Venus, with its surface as hot as 450 °C and the near-surface pressure of 92–93 bars, has a hot and dense atmosphere 93 times that of the Earth in mass. Most of its atmospheric mass (99%) belongs to the 65-km thick troposphere consisting of CO2 (96.5%) and N2 (3.5%). The upper troposphere includes a 25–30 km thick cloud layer composed mainly of sulfuric acid droplets, water vapor, and SO2. At a height of 49.58 km, the clouds approach the conditions of the terrestrial surface and might be hospitable to bacterial life. Volcanism, the most active and widespread process of Venusian geology, maintains continuous SO2 emission. There are diverse volcanic edifices on Venus, which are most often large and are similar to the Earth’s plume-related volcanoes. The evolution before 1 Ga, as well as the share and the role of alkaline rocks and carbonatites among its volcanics, are among the most debatable issues about Venus. Being located closer to the Sun, Venus cooled down more slowly and less intensely than the Earth after the primary accretion. In the Proterozoic, it began heating and reached its present state at ~ 1 or 2 Ga. In the future, as the Sun becomes a red giant, the Earth is predicted to begin heating up in 500–600 Myr to reach the temperature of present Venus in about 1.5 Gyr.

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