The 40Ar/39Ar age of volcanics from the sections of core boreholes in the northern Tyumen’–Kostanai trough (Kurgan Region) has been determined. The geologic structure of the northern part of the trough has been refined. The paleogeographic environments and geodynamic settings of formation of Carboniferous deposits have been established by sedimentological, petrological, and geochemical studies of the sections. In the Visean, marine environments with maximum basin depths were predominant. In the Kachar epoch (C1v3-s), the submarine relief of the basin became more complicated; blocks of older rocks appeared in the deposits. The geochemical indicator characteristics of the volcanics—contents of HFSE (Ti, Nb, Ta, Th, and Hf)—are close to those of andesitoids of island arcs and Andean-type active continental margins, as well as present-day andesites from the Kurile–Kamchatka zone. They are an order of magnitude lower than those in similar continental-rift volcanics, among which are volcanics of the Valer’yanovka zone (according to some researchers). The contents of Ni, Co, and V are similar to those in island-arc andesites, including rocks of the Kurile–Kamchatka zone. The Ba/Ta and Ba/La ratios and the proportions of Th, Hf, and Ta in andesitoids of the Valer’yanovka and Kachar Groups are close to the indicator characteristics of island-arc and active-continental-margin volcanics. The Kachar Group siliceous rocks are similar in the Rb/Zr–Nb, Fe–Nb, and Rb–(Y + Nb) correlations to rocks of mature island arcs and active continental margins. The incompatible-element and REE patterns for the Valer’yanovka and Kachar volcanics are typical of island-arc volcanics, including rocks from the Kurile–Kamchatka zone. The indicator geochemical features and petrology of the volcanics and the sedimentologic features of the deposits testify to their formation on an Andean-type active continental margin (western margin of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent) in the Early–Middle Carboniferous.