We summarize results of geological, geochronological, petrogeochemical, and isotope-geochemical (Sr–Nd) studies of Late Vendian–Early Paleozoic granitoid batholiths in Eastern Tuva (Kaa-Khem, East Tannu-Ola, Khamsara, etc.). Analysis of geochronological (U–Pb, Ar–Ar) data has shown that the Late Vendian–Early Paleozoic granitoids in Eastern Tuva formed in several stages in the time interval 562–450 Ma and at different geodynamic stages of the regional evolution: island-arc (562–518 Ma) and accretion–collision (500–450 Ma), with the latter stage characterized by more intense granitoid magmatism. Diorite–tonalite–plagiogranite associations with different petrogeochemical parameters are the most widespread in the region. Petrogeochemical studies of the Late Vendian–Early Paleozoic plagiogranitoid associations have revealed high- and low-alumina varieties reflecting different conditions of formation of parental melts. At the island-arc stage of the regional evolution, only low-alumina plagiogranites of tholeiitic (M-type) and calc-alkalic (I-type) series formed. Their parental melts were generated at 3–8 kbar through the partial melting of N-MORB-type metabasalts in equilibrium with amphibole restite. Isotope-geochemical studies have shown positive εNd values (6.9–6.3) and low Sr isotope ratios ((87Sr/86Sr)0 = 0.7034–0.7046). The lower (as compared with the depleted mantle) εNd values and specific petrogeochemical composition (negative Nb–Ta and Ti anomalies) of the plagiogranites reflect the subduction nature of metabasic substratum and the subordinate role of ancient crustal material. At the accretion–collision stage of the regional evolution, high- and low-alumina plagiogranitoids of calc-alkalic series (I-type) formed. The high-alumina plagiogranitoids are products of melting of N-MORB-type metabasalts in equilibrium with garnet restite at ≥ 15 kbar in the lower part of the collisional structures, and the low-alumina ones formed through the melting of metabasites in equilibrium with amphibole restite at ≤ 8 kbar in the upper part of the same structures. The Sr–Nd isotope data for the high- and low-alumina plagiogranitoids generated at the accretion–collision stage show that the rejuvenation of rocks is accompanied by the decrease in εNd (from 6.2 to 3.4) and the increase in their model Nd age TNd(DM) (from 0.73 to 0.92 Ga) and (87Sr/86Sr)0 (0.7036–0.7048). This points to the essentially metabasic composition of the parental substratum, as in the case of the island-arc plagiogranitoids, and the progressive supply of ancient crustal material to the magma generation zone.