The porosity and permeability of core rocks were studied by X-ray tomography. This method has a high potential for studying petrophysical properties of rocks, because it permits not only a general quantitative estimation of the void volume but also visualization of the rock texture, including pores, cavities, cracks, and zones of different densities in the matrix. X-ray tomography permits detailed studies of rock inhomogeneity, which are necessary for the elaboration of reliable porosity–permeability models for hydrocarbon pools. The investigations at Perm State National Research Polytechnic University have shown that X-ray tomography of core samples has a wide spectrum of applications in petroleum geology. Nikon Metrology XT H 225 X-ray computed tomography makes it possible to examine samples with a standard diameter (30 mm) and whole core samples (100 mm). The structure of voids in carbonate and terrigenous rocks was studied on samples with standard and full diameters; the results of hydrochloric acid treatment of carbonate reservoir rocks were visualized; and the mechanical properties of rock salts were studied. Three-dimensional models for the structure of voids and mineral matrix of the core samples have been constructed with the use of the Avizo Fire software.