We consider the primary nature and sources of the protoliths of metamorphic rocks of the Kurai block located in the large Teletskoe–Kurai system of deep faults separating the Gorny Altai and West Sayan structures. It has been established that the protoliths of the Kurai block metapelites were deposits of transitional crust: They lack typical rocks of mature continental crust (arkoses, litharenites) and have reduced (relative to the upper continental crust) contents of lithophile elements and elevated contents of transition elements. The average Nd model age of the protoliths of the metapelites of the Kurai complex corresponds to the Middle Riphean (1.4–1.6 Ga). The metabasites of the Kurai complex are similar in petrologic composition to metamorphic products of oceanic basalts. It is shown that the formation of metamorphic associations of the Kurai block was caused by tectonometamorphic transformations of a compositionally heterogeneous rock unit (basalts, aluminous and volcanomict sediments), which were, most likely, a fragment of Middle Cambrian–Early Ordovician turbidite basin with an oceanic basement.