Paleogeographic reconstruction of the West Siberian basin during the Jurassic is based on a variety of criteria used to evaluate the depositional environments (paleontological, sedimentological, geochemical, etc.). Extensive geochemical data on the hydrocarbon biomarkers in bitumen from organic matter are first used to constrain the depositional setting of this large region over a span of about 45 Myr. The study provides a detailed description of paleogeographic maps compiled for the main epochs of the Jurassic period with the reconstruction of paleorelief and differentiation of potential external and internal sources of terrigenous material. The paleogeographic reconstructions of the basin are considered with implications for the formation of regional seals and reservoir units. A special emphasis is given to interpretation of organic matter type and depositional setting of the major oil and gas source rocks. The study infers a paleogeographic control on the stratigraphic and areal distribution of hydrocarbon accumulations in the basin.