Abstract

Dikes of biotitic shonkinites and minettes of the complex Ryabinovyi alkaline massif (Central Aldan) have been studied. The dikes are localized in a neck of K-picrites in the northeast of the massif, which intrudes gold-bearing microcline–muscovite metasomatites (Muscovitovyi site). The obtained data on the chemical and trace-element compositions of the rocks and minerals and study of melt inclusions in clinopyroxenes indicate that the biotitic shonkinites and minettes crystallized from the same deep-seated high-pressure alkaline ultrabasic magma during its evolution. Apparently, at the early stage of crystallization of diopside in the biotitic shonkinites, homogeneous carbonate–silicate melt was separated into immiscible fractions of silicate, carbonate–salt, and carbonate melts. The temperature of melt immiscibility was > 1120–1190 °C, i.e., higher than the homogenization temperature of silicate inclusions in the diopside. The contents of trace elements in the biotitic shonkinites and rock-forming clinopyroxenes were one or two orders of magnitude higher than the mantle values. The Eu/Eu* ratios of both the considered rocks and the clinopyroxenes were close to those of chondrites, which testifies to their crystallization from mantle magma. The HREE/LREE ratio indicates that the magma source was localized at the depths where garnet-spinel assemblages existed. The negative Nb and Ti anomalies in the trace-element spectra and the high (> 5) La/Nb ratios in the rocks and clinopyroxenes point to the influence of crustal material on the parental magma. Crystallization of magma took place in reducing conditions, which is evidenced by the low (4–7) Ti/V ratios in clinopyroxenes and the presence of chloride–sulfate inclusions in them. Since gold in the Ryabinovyi massif is associated with late sulfate–chloride and sulfate–carbonate fluids, it might have been transported by alkaline chloride–sulfate and carbonate (carbonatite) melts, found as inclusions in clinopyroxenes of the biotitic shonkinites, at the early stages of Mesozoic magmatism.

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