Abstract

Deformation patterns in subduction zones, feeder systems of volcanoes, and rifts are compared and investigated in terms of relations among elastoplastic strain, rheology, pore fluids, and temperature. Regional-scale subduction processes have been explored in segments of the Kuriles–Kamchatka, Izu-Bonin, and Mariana zones. Slab geometry constraints from the 3D velocity structure are used to model the balance of forces in the three subduction zones and to distinguish the regions of predominant push or pull. Stress and strain variations in suprasubduction crust are considered for the case of magma sources beneath the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes. Time-lapse (4D) seismic tomography shows crustal magma reservoirs to appear and disappear rapidly as the volcanoes become active or dormant, respectively. This behavior is due to rapid strain changes which cause fast flow of fluids and the ensuing decrease or increase of melting temperature in the magma reservoirs. In addition to subduction zones, stress-strain patterns are modeled for collisional (compressive) settings, with the example of the Altai–Sayan area and the Caucasus, and for the conditions of rifting (extension), in the case of the Vilyui basin. As the modeling shows, formation of a superdeep basin does not necessarily require the crust to stretch twice or more: only 20% stretching in the necking region is enough to produce a 10–15 km deep basin.

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