A comparative geochemical characteristics of Late Precambrian sedimentary rocks (Ust’-Kelyana and Tuluya rock units) in the Anamakit–Muya zone of the Baikal–Muya belt is given, and the conditions of their sedimentation are considered. The first results of U–Pb (LA-ICP-MS) dating of detrital zircons and Sm–Nd isotope data on the Tuluya unit deposits are presented. Petrogeochemical study showed that the studied sediments are first-cycle rocks similar in composition to terrigenous island-arc sediments. The low contents of Th, Rb, Zr, Hf, and LREE and high contents of Co, Ni, Sc, V, Cr, and Fe2O3* in the sandstones of the Ust’-Kelyana unit evidence that these rocks are similar to oceanic-arc deposits. In contrast, the enrichment of the Tuluya unit rocks in Zr, LREE, Th, Rb, and Nb indicates their similarity to deposits of continental island arcs or active continental margin. Isotope-geochronological studies of the Tuluya rock unit showed the mixing of detrital material resulted from the erosion of Neoproterozoic island-arc igneous rock associations (625–700 Ma), like those in the Karalon–Mamakan zone (Yakor’ and Karalon Formations), and more ancient associations, like the Kelyana (812–824 Ma) and/or Dzhaltuk Groups. Judging from the minimum age of detrital zircon, the lower time bound of sedimentation corresponds to 0.6 Ga.