The Pb–Zn deposits in the Lo Gam structure, northeastern Vietnam, account for >80% of all the Pb and Zn resources of Vietnam. All the deposits make up four isolated ore districts (Thai Nguyen, Cho Don, Cho Dien, Na Son), which can be combined in one metallogenic zone extending for >100 km from southeast to northwest. The Pb–Zn deposits in all the ore districts show some similarity to stratiform (Mississippi-type) deposits: confinement to Devonian carbonate sediments; localization at the intersection of faults of different orientations; vein and stockwork (pocket-vein-disseminated) morphology of the mineralized zones; evidence for hydrothermal-metasomatic formation (carbonate-rock marbleization, quartz–carbonate veins, etc.); and low and moderate mineralization temperatures (<250 °C). On the other hand, some differences from stratiform deposits are observed: widespread occurrence of Permo-Triassic igneous rocks in the above ore districts; absent tabular orebodies, which are typical of stratiform deposits; large set of trace elements (In, Bi, Sb, Au, Ag, Cu, Cd) not typical of stratiform deposits; and an endogenic primary source, as evidenced by the isotope composition of sulfur (δS34= 2.68‰), which is close to meteoritic, and the set of trace elements, which are mainly of deep genesis. All this indicates that the above Pb–Zn deposits within the carbonate units are low-and moderate-temperature hydrothermal-metasomatic products associated with active magmatism which took place in this region in the Permo-Triassic.
The differences in the mineral composition of the deposits, as well as in the trace-element set and contents at different deposits, clearly indicate an intricate ore formation process and the relation of the deposits with magmatism of different compositions. The simple mineral composition and the limited set of trace elements (Cd, Ag, Sb, As) at the Lang Hich deposit are closer to the characteristics of stratiform deposits. Also, manifestations of magmatism are almost absent here. On the contrary, unusually high (ppm) In (75.8), Sn (307.5), Cu (1080), Ag (157.7), Bi (99), and As (13,650) contents were observed at the deposits of the Cho Don and Cho Dien districts, with widespread granitoid magmatism in the Phia Bioc complex. Rare-earth mineralization (orthite) and high Mo, Re, and Rb contents at the deposits of the Na Son district are probably due to the widespread occurrence of stratified alkaline volcanics and their subvolcanic analogs, which belong to the Pla Ma complex (ξγPZ2 pm).