We present a new three-dimensional model of P-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle beneath the Circum-Arctic region based on tomographic inversion of global data from the catalogues of the International Seismological Center (ISC, 2007). We used travel times of seismic waves from events located in the study area which were recorded by the worldwide network, as well as data from remote events registered by stations in the study region. The obtained mantle seismic anomalies clearly correlate with the main lithosphere structures in the Circum-Arctic region. High-velocity anomalies down to 250–300 km depth correspond to Precambrian thick lithosphere plates, such as the East European Platform with the adjacent shelf areas, Siberian Plate, Canadian Shield, and Greenland. It should be noted that lithosphere beneath the central part of Greenland appears to be strongly thinned, which can be explained by the effect of the Iceland plume which passed under Greenland 50–60 million years ago. Beneath Chukotka, Yakutia, and Alaska we observe low-velocity anomalies which represent weak and relatively thin actively deformed lithosphere. Some of these low-velocity areas coincide with manifestations of Cenozoic volcanism. A high-velocity anomaly at 500–700 km depth beneath Chukotka may be a relic of the subduction zone which occurred here about 100 million years ago. In the oceanic areas, the tomography results are strongly inhomogeneous. Beneath the North Atlantic, we observe very strong low-velocity anomalies which indicate an important role of the Iceland plume and active rifting in the opening of the oceanic basin. On the contrary, beneath the central part of the Arctic Ocean, no significant anomalies are observed, which implies a passive character of rifting.