The paper discusses the important and urgent problem of enlarging the mineral resources of Russia. Volcanosedimentary complexes of greenstone belts are suggested as a new alternative source of apatite ores. The distinguishing features and minerageny of greenstone complexes in the Karelian, Aldan, and Anabar Shields have been considered. Apatite occurrences have been described in brief. The paper suggests the main lines of study and geological exploration of apatite-bearing metavolcanic sedimentary complexes.