Naphthene-benzenes, naphthene-naphthalenes, and naphthene-phenantrenes have been extracted with methanol from mono-, bi-, and triarene fractions of oils of different genetic types from the West Siberian, Timan–Pechora, North Caucasian, and Pannonian (Serbia) oil-and-gas-bearing basins. The hydrocarbon composition and molecular-mass distribution (MMD) of naphthene-arenes have been determined by mass spectrometry. Naphthene-benzene and naphthene-naphthalene molecules contain one to six naphthenic cycles, whereas naphthene-phenantrene molecules contain one to three naphthenic rings. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl groups of naphthene-benzenes, naphthene-naphthalenes, and naphthene-phenantrenes reaches 38, 20, and 19, respectively. Distinctive features of group compositions and MMD of naphthene-arenes have been revealed in oils generated by different organic matter.