We investigate the 2D thermal structure of lithosphere in the Central Asian and Pacific tectonic belts and adjacent cratonic areas of Siberia and North China using a synthesis of geothermal data from six geoscience transects covered by seismic, resistivity, and gravity surveys. The patterns of rock density, radiogenic heat production derived from U and Th abundances, thermal conductivity, temperatures, and respective heat flows reveal a layered structure. The model with layers distinguished according to density and thermal parameters includes well pronounced dome-shaped features in the crust which correlate with upwarps of the asthenospheric top. The domes are marked by high heat flows of 60–90 mW/m2 with a mantle component higher than the crustal one (30–60 mW/m2 against 20–30 mW/m2) and temperatures as high as 800–1100 °C at the Moho. Many of these features correspond to known and potential petroleum basins.