The paper deals with the main fundamental problem of oil and gas geology—compilation of a theoretical basis and elucidation of the mechanism of hydrocarbon pool formation. The temperature factor determining this mechanism is insufficient for the breaking of carbon–carbon bonds in organic molecules. It is shown that this process is provoked by the internal energy of the subsurface organic matter determined by unpaired electrons surrounding carbon nuclei. In natural processes, this phenomenon is realized as a result of sedimentary-rock consolidation on the subsidence of sedimentation basins, during subhorizontal microdislocations measured via Poisson’s ratio and Protod’yakonov “arch”. This effect can be reached on hydrofracturing. A possibility of fluid hydrocarbon migration beyond the modern-day oil and gas pools is discussed, thus demonstrating that there are no traces that would suggest oil migration. Hydrocarbon pools have been revealed in clayey rocks, both bituminous and OM-poor. It is shown that the exploitation of a new type of reservoir (bazhenite) with natural hydrocarbon pools as well as technogenic (newly formed) oil and gas pools in clayey, clay-siliceous, siliceous, clay-carbonate, and clay-siliceous-carbonate bituminous rocks will significantly increase oil production in West Siberia.