Abstract

Experimental studies of diamond formation in the alkaline silicate-carbon system Na2O–K2O–MgO–CaO–Al2O3–SiO2–C were carried out at 8.5 GPa. In accordance with the diamond nucleation criterion, a high diamond generation efficiency (spontaneous mass diamond crystallization) has been confirmed for the melts of the system Na2SiO3–carbon and has been first established for the melts of the systems CaSiO3–carbon and (NaAlSi3O8)80(Na2SiO3)20–carbon. It is shown that in completely miscible carbonate-silicate melts oversaturated with dissolved diamond-related carbon, a concentration barrier of diamond nucleation (CBDN) arises at a particular ratio of carbonate and silicate components. Study of different systems (eclogite–K-Na-Mg-Ca-Fe-carbonatite–carbon, albite–K2CO3–carbon, etc.) has revealed a dependence of the barrier position on the chemical composition of the system and the inhibiting effect of silicate components on the nucleation density and rate of diamond crystal growth. In multicomponent eclogite-carbonatite solvent, the CBDN is within the range of carbonatite compositions (<50 wt.% silicates). Based on the experimental criterion for the syngenesis of diamond and growth inclusions in them, we studied the syngenesis diagram for the system melanocratic carbonatite–diamond and determined a set of the composition fields and physical parameters of the system that are responsible for the cogeneration of diamond and various mineral and melt parageneses. The experimental results were applied to substantiate a new physicochemical concept of carbonate-silicate (carbonatite) growth media for most of natural diamonds and to elaborate a genetic classification of growth mineral, melt, and fluid inclusions in natural diamonds of mantle genesis.

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