Abstract

Sedimentary processes in the paleocoastal part of the Bengal basin that occured in the Tertiary and Quaternary have been addressed. Three indicators were used: sedimentary bedding forms, microstructure of the sediment, and trace fossils. Various forms of sedimentary structures developed under the influence of dynamic geomorphic processes in the study area in the Quaternary. The microstructure analysis of the sedimentary materials was made by two methods: microphotography and Digital Color Analysis (DCA). The microstructure analysis shows that the geomorphic process remained very dynamic in the Quaternary, influencing the form, thickness, and mineral composition of the sediment strata. The enrichment of the sediments in heavy minerals evidences either oscillating or combined flow sedimentation, while under stable conditions light-mineral deposition took place. The digital data of microfabric study by the DCA method also show that larger particles deposited in the oscillating or high-flow environment and evidence a greater amount of heavy minerals like ferruginous materials. Trace fossils found in the sediments of this area also strongly support the concept that the environment remained dynamic during the Tertiary and Quaternary. The Late Tertiary deposition shows that, during these periods, the sediments were transported from tide-dominated marine coast with low flow energy, which is typical of hot and humid conditions. From Late Tertiary to Early Quaternary, the macrotidal coast became mesotidal (wave-dominated). The second phase is the Middle Pleistocene, when the environment was stable, favoring the continuous deposition of finer particles under low- to medium-flow energy conditions. The third phase, the Recent, is marked by the shoreline shift and modification of the environment. In the Early–Middle Holocene, the shoreline started to shift, which modified the geomorphic conditions of this place from coastal to estuarine and, finally, inland fluvial.

You do not currently have access to this article.