Climatic changes in southeastern Transbaikalia in the Middle and Late Holocene and their influence on alluvial sedimentation environments are reconstructed from the results of study of the Ilya floodplain sediments (Alkhanai National Park). At the beginning of the Subboreal period, the regional climate became more arid, which led to a significant increase in steppe species communities in the landscapes. Intense climate aridization also took place at the beginning and at the end of the Subatlantic period of the Holocene. The alluvial-sedimentation rate increased during the weakening of aridization and decreased during cooling and the intensification of aridization. The obtained regional data are compared with data on the adjacent areas and the global climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere.