Abstract

Using the ICP-MS method we have studied the isotope systematics of Sr and Nd as well as trace element composition of a representative collection of kimberlites and related rocks from the Siberian Platform. The summarized literature and our own data suggest that the kimberlites developed within the platform can be divided into several petrochemical and geochemical types, whose origin is related to different mantle sources. The petrochemical classification of kimberlites is based on persistent differences of their composition in mg# and in contents of indicator oxides such as FeOtot, TiO2, and K2O. The recognized geochemical types of kimberlites differ from one another in the level of concentration of incompatible elements as well as in their ratios.

Most of isotope characteristics of kimberlites and related rocks of the Siberian Platform correspond to the earlier studied Type 1 basaltoid kimberlites from different provinces of the world: Points of isotopic compositions are in the field of primitive and weakly depleted mantle. An exception is one sample of the rocks from veins of the Ingashi field (Sayan area), which is characterized by the Sr and Nd isotopic composition corresponding to Type 2 micaceous kimberlites (orangeites).

The most important feature of distribution of isotopic and trace-element compositions (incompatible elements) is their independence of the chemical rock composition. It is shown that the kimberlite formation is connected with, at least, two independent sources, fluid and melt, responsible for the trace-element and chemical compositions of the rock. It is supposed that, when rising through the heterogeneous lithosphere of the mantle, a powerful flow of an asthenosphere-derived fluid provoked the formation of local kimberlite chambers there. Thus, the partial melting of the lithosphere mantle led to the formation of contrasting petrochemical types of kimberlites, while the geochemical specialization of kimberlites is due to the mantle fluid of asthenosphere origin, which drastically dominated in the rare-metal balance of a hybrid magma of the chamber.

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