Geochemical and geochronological studies of the main types of granitoids of the Angara-Vitim batholith (AVB) and granites of the Zaza complex in western Transbaikalia were carried out. U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) and Rb-Sr dating yielded the age of autochthonous gneiss-granites of the Zelenaya Griva massif (325.3±2.8 Ma), quartz syenites of the Khangintui pluton (302.3±3.7 Ma) and intruding leucogranites of the Zaza complex (294.4±1 Ma), monzonites of the Khasurta massif (283.7±5.3 Ma), and quartz monzonites of the Romanovka massif (278.5±2.4 Ma). The U-Pb and Rb-Sr dates show that the Late Paleozoic magmatism in western Transbaikalia proceeded in two stages: (1) 340–320 Ma, when predominantly mesocratic granites of the Barguzin complex, including autochthonous ones, formed, and (2) 310–270 Ma, when most AVB granitoids formed. We suggest that at the early stage, crustal peraluminous granites formed in collision geodynamic setting. At the late (main) stage, magmatism occurred in postorogenic-extension setting and was accompanied by the formation of several geochemical types of granitoids: (1) typical intrusive mesocratic granites of the Barguzin complex, similar to those produced at the first stage; (2) melanocratic granitoids (monzonitoids, quartz syenites), which were earlier dated to the early stage of the AVB evolution; (3) leucocratic medium-alkali (peraluminous) granites of the Zaza intrusive complex; and (4) some alkali-granite and syenite intrusions accompanied by alkaline mafic rocks. The diversity of granitoids that formed at the late stage of magmatism was due to the heterogeneous composition of crust protoliths and different degrees of mantle-magma participation in their formation.