This research paper presents an investigation of an aquifer structure using a combination of gravity and seismic analyses, calibrated by hydrogeological data. This work illustrates how crucial it is to study geological structures and fault networks as preliminary work to understand water- and pollutant-flow systems and aquifer vulnerability, especially with the increased frequency of drought events and climate change pressures. A Plio-Quaternary coastal northeastern aquifer in Tunisia was chosen as the study case.

First, a hydrogeological approach was performed using water wells, and piezometer data showed an important fluctuation in the piezometric level and a notable depression in the piezometric surface observed in the southern part of the study area.

Secondly, gravity data were analysed and calibrated using a seismic profile. The results demonstrated the presence of shallow NE–SW faults less than 300 m below the region's principal wadis, as well as deeper faults of varying depths (from 400 to 2600 m) that influence the basin structure, aquifer geometry and resulting water flow.

The combination of these approaches revealed that the variations in the aquifer thickness, piezometric surface depression zones and groundwater flow are mainly controlled by shallow and deep geological structures and their tectonic reactivation.

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