Hong Kong is one of the most densely developed places on the planet, with a population density of almost 7,000 people per km2 and over 300 buildings with heights greater than 150m, over 90% of which used concrete as the main structural material. The nature and scale of this development means that aggregates have formed an essential construction material for the development of the territory. However, the small area of Hong Kong (1,104km2), its lack of developable land, and increasing public concern on quarrying impacts has led to the rehabilitation and closure of most local quarries over the last 20 years. The decline in local aggregate supply caused by this has resulted in an increasing reliance on aggregate imported from elsewhere, with associated implications in terms of supply, cost and quality control. Quarry closure has also reduced Hong Kong’s readiness to process and reuse good quality rock generated by construction projects. To combat these issues, a detailed review of aggregate supply strategies for Hong Kong was conducted, including a territory-wide search for potential new quarry sites together with assessments on the feasibility of integrating other aggregate sources in the supply chain such as underground quarrying and recycled aggregate.

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