In spite of the Kozeny–Carman formula having been applied effectively to sands, there is at present no generally accepted explanation for why it is inadequate for clays. The impermeable adsorbed water layer surrounding the soil particles throws further light on the issue. By introducing the pervious void ratio, which accounts for the effective voids that a fluid flows through, a modified Kozeny–Carman formula is presented. The results presented here show that the modified Kozeny–Carman formula predicts fairly well the hydraulic conductivity of clays, especially for fine-grained soils.

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