Over the past decade Hong Kong has seen a rapid expansion in the use of underground space for Civil Engineering infrastructure projects (Fig. 1). Forty-eight kilometres of rail tunnel has been or is in the process of being constructed with associated shafts (Fig. 2) for access and ventilation and mined caverns for stations (Fig. 3). The catalyst for this expansion may be due to the integration of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region with China, which commenced in 1997 (with the handing back of Hong Kong and the New Territories to China) and has...

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