The choice of water management practice depends partly on normal commercial exploitation and partly on its position as a life-essential. The underground “resource” that is to be managed includes potable and non-potable waters whether they be in “temporary” or “permanent” storage, and consideration needs to be given to the use of non-potable aquifers for waste disposal purposes. Acceptance of management as the promotion of optimum regional welfare requires its introduction in the development of a water resources system at an early a stage as possible. The management scheme should give consideration to a wide range of user requirements and meet such demands from a number of devices at its disposal. Optimum performance will be obtained from widespread modification of the hydrological cycle by the integrated use of surface and subsurface resources. This requires a thorough understanding of all aspects of the cycle, and the degree of mutual interdependence of the components is illustrated. Examples of a variety of management schemes are briefly described and serve to show the significant role played by hydrogeology in the design of these schemes. Water-resources management is dependent on specialist hydrological advice, but the status and career opportunities for scientists in this field have yet to achieve parity with those of engineers, and until such time as this is achieved then interdisciplinary study will remain desirable but not realizable.