Generic and detailed quantitative assessments of the risks posed to human health from land contamination involve the comparison of representative contaminant concentrations against relevant generic or site-specific assessment criteria respectively. Technical guidance on statistical tests to determine whether contaminant concentrations exceed relevant assessment criteria fails to recognize the effects of sample clustering and heterogeneity in ground conditions on the validity of the test results. Reference to the conceptual model should be made to determine the likely level of contamination to which the critical receptor may be exposed within an averaging area.

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