The city of Wollongong is nestled within a narrow coastal plain approximately 70 km south of Sydney in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia (Fig. 1 ). Over the last 150 years of settlement the population of the Wollongong area, extending from Helensburgh in the north to Windang in the south has increased to about 200 000 people. The coastal plain is triangular in shape with a coastal length of 25 km. It is widest in the south at Yallah (14 km) and narrows sharply towards the north, disappearing north of Thirroul. The coastal plain is bounded...

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