Lime piles, which essentially consist of holes in the ground filled with lime, have been successfully used worldwide for the in situ treatment of failing clay slopes. The literature on the technique does not, however, permit a full explanation as to why lime piles work or how to design them. It is widely reported that migration of the lime from the piles into the surrounding clay provides the major stabilizing mechanism. This paper aims to review the literature on lime migration from piles and to report the results of recent research at Loughborough University to determine migration mechanisms from compacted quicklime piles. Potential applications are then discussed in the light of the findings.
Hydroxyl (OH-) ion migration by diffusion processes in intact clay is shown to be limited by high reactivity to approximately 20-30 mm. Nevertheless hydraulic transport via dehydration cracking or other discontinuities in the clay mass could result in migration extending for far greater distances. Calcium (Ca2+) ion migration, would be expected to occur over distances greater than 1 m in ten years. Thus while full clay stabilization might only occur to a limited degree, modification of the clay is likely to be widespread. Mineralogical changes indicate a strength gain equivalent to that of lime mixed with clay at the initial lime consumption (Eades & Grim 1966) value plus 2% and cured for 28 days.