The organic-rich, black mudstones that were initially described as the Black Band in Lincolnshire, Humberside and Yorkshire are known to be a local representation of the Cenomanian–Turonian Boundary Event (CTBE). This world-wide event is known as Oceanic Anoxic Event ll (OAEll) and it marks a distinctive extinction event within the Cretaceous biota. Since some of the original work on the benthic foraminifera that are found in both the Black Band and coeval sedimentary rocks, there has been a significant increase in the understanding of the biology of foraminifera, and their response to both modern and fossil low-O2 environments. While the overall event is clearly global, the local response appears to be a function of both geological setting and water depth with the occurrence of organic-rich sediments as a combination of this setting, plankton productivity and preservation.

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