Pecopteris miltonii, a middle Westphalian fern originally described from Yorkshire, England, is redescribed and figured here from roof shales of the Barnsley Seam, the level from which it was first recorded. This material is regarded as complementary to the holotype, a fertile specimen showing limited morphological variation and almost lacking venation. Pinna shape of the holotype, including terminals, and the shape and dimensions of pinnules, match that of the material in hand. An analysis of the literature shows that only a limited number of specimens recorded with the miltonii epithet may be regarded as properly assigned. This includes a magnificent specimen figured from Lower Silesia by Stur. Although the species is apparently rare, it is fairly widespread, from North America to central Europe (Bohemia, Lower Silesia). The taxonomic position of Pecopteris miltonii is discussed with reference to the genera Lobatopteris and Crenulopteris, and its synonymy with Pecopteris aspidioides is proposed. A full analysis of Pecopteris miltonii and its synonymy serves to delimit this classical species, which has been often misidentified.