Internal deformation within the Eurasian continent during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic occurred in response to a series of discrete collisional events along its southern margin. Collisions are recorded from Late Triassic, Middle Jurassic, latest Jurassic, mid-Cretaceous and Late Palaeogene-Recent times. Periods of deformation recorded from sedimentary basins both close to and more distant from the southern margin of Eurasia can be related to these collisional events. The strain of each collision was accommodated both by intense deformation along the margin of Eurasia and by relative movement of continental blocks within the accretional collage of Eurasia along pre-existing heterogeneities. Additional mid-Jurassic and latest Cretaceous uplift events are not directly related to collisional events on the southern margin of the continent. Petroleum systems in both strike-slip dominated basins (such as the South Caspian and Turgay basins) and thrust-dominated basins (such as the Fergana and Afghan-Tajik basins) show the influence of deformation on trap formation and breaching as well as on the remigration and potential loss of hydrocarbons. Periods of deformation also have a direct influence on the timing of hydrocarbon generation.