Riphean-Vendian strata represent the lowest stratigraphic interval of the East European Platform which could contain undiscovered hydrocarbons. Regional geophysical surveys in the 1990s have aimed at studying the structural features and petroleum potential of the ancient strata of the Moscow syneclise. In the central parts of the platform, Riphean deposits fill deep and extensive graben systems superposed by basins containing thick Vendian sequences. Middle Riphean and Upper Vendian clay-siltstone strata of coastal-marine origin are rich in organic matter of sapropelic type and are source rocks. The geological and geochemical environment is favorable for the formation of oil and gas pools. The main exploration aim is to detect zones with all the criteria favourable for the presence of hydrocarbons, modern geophysical and geochemical exploratory methods playing a crucial role.