Injected CO2 streams may have geochemical reactivity to different rock types in a CO2 storage complex depending on solubility and formation water chemistry. The Precipice Sandstone and Evergreen Formation are a low-salinity reservoir–seal pair in the Surat Basin, Australia, targeted for potential CO2 storage. The kinetic geochemical CO2 reactivity of different rock facies from three regions were predicted over 30 and 1000 year time periods. No material CO2 mineral trapping in the quartz-rich Precipice Sandstone reservoir was predicted, owing to the low rock reactivity. Predicted CO2 mineral trapping in the Evergreen Formation was more variable due to different amounts of more reactive feldspars, clays, calcite and siderite. Predicted mineral trapping as siderite and ankerite was between 0.03 and 8.4 kg m−3 CO2, and mainly depends on chlorite and plagioclase content. Predicted pH was between 5 and 7.5 after 1000 years. Pyrite precipitation was also predicted with SO2 present in the injectate. QEMSCAN and SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy) spot imaging of samples from the seal containing natural fractures filled by siderite, pyrite, clays, ankerite, calcite, barite and apatite represent a natural analogue for natural mineral trapping. These are in good agreement with our model predictions. This study suggests that, from a geochemical perspective, the Precipice Sandstone is a suitable storage reservoir, whereas mineral trapping would occur in the overlying Evergreen Formation.

Supplementary material: Additional model inputs, characterization and model images, and an excel file of QEMSCAN mineral and porosity components, are available at

Thematic collection: This article is part of the Geoscience for CO2 storage collection available at:

You do not have access to this content, please speak to your institutional administrator if you feel you should have access.