The Lower Jurassic Precipice Sandstone and Evergreen Formation are an important prospective reservoir–seal pair for CO2 storage in the Surat Basin, Australia. However, there is little seismic and well data to constrain reservoir modelling in the best notional injection area. To test the likely storage performance, three contrasting sector-scale static reservoir models were built to capture the range of geological uncertainty in facies distribution and reservoir properties. These considered sectors of the Surat Basin with different palaeogeographical arrangements. The models were focused on capturing detail at the interface between the top of the Precipice Sandstone (Blocky Sandstone Reservoir: BSR) and the overlying basal portions of the Evergreen Formation (Transition Zone: TZ), a critical area for understanding CO2 injection. Object modelling was used for the BSR and lower TZ. Stochastic modelling was implemented for the upper TZ and the Ultimate Seal because these zones were less sensitive to facies distributions. Porosity was modelled stochastically, and permeability calculated using porosity–permeability transformation functions. Dynamic simulation showed the TZ has the capacity to arrest CO2 flow out of the BSR given appropriate CO2 injection conditions. This study shows a method of capturing uncertainty in geological heterogeneity when data are sparse or absent. The promising initial modelling results of CO2 injection into the Surat Basin suggests that it presents a real option for carbon storage at a climate mitigation scale. Further investigation should focus on assessing other major risks associated with carbon storage such as fault seals, reactive fluid transport and the impact of legacy wells.
This article is part of the Energy Geoscience Series available at https://www.lyellcollection.org/cc/energy-geoscience-series