A workflow is presented for constructing an outcrop-based static geological model for Miocene heterozoan, photozoan, oolitic and microbial carbonates in SE Spain. Fieldwork and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data were integrated to create a photorealistic virtual outcrop. Field-based data are depicted on the virtual outcrop, and used to identify and correlate horizons. Multivariate regression is used to extend stratigraphic horizons away from the outcrop and to create realistic time-equivalent model layers. Mapping and measured stratigraphic sections are used to assign depofacies within model layers. Pinning points are used to reconstruct sea-level history, and palaeotopography is used to define palaeobathymetry. Geospatial analysis of depofacies occurrence is used to extrapolate facies while also enforcing palaeobathymetric controls on depofacies distribution. Dolomitization and meteoric calcite cementation are dominant diagenetic products affecting porosity and permeability. Their distribution was mapped in the field and amounts were quantified in the laboratory, and these were used to populate diagenetic products into geomodel cells. Six scenario models were built to represent different stages and combinations of diagenetic effects on porosity and permeability. Construction of the static geological models required the development of new methods. These include: (1) a new workflow to extend clinoform surfaces across the model area by fitting equations to horizon picks made on the outcrop; (2) a new workflow relating relative sea level to model layers to allow calculation of palaeo-water depth and relate that to facies probability; and; (3) an experimental application to predict porosity and permeability from objective visual descriptions of carbonate samples.

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