Abstract

ABSTRACT

The Molve Field is the most important gas-condensate reservoir in Croatia. This petroleum system is not typical for the Pannonian System, because it comprises several reservoir lithologies, relatively high structural closure and significant tectonic influence on the field's compartmentalization. Strike-slip extension in the Middle Miocene and younger Late Miocene and Pliocene tectonics formed the present-day tectonic setting. Reservoir stratigraphy includes four lithofacies (from Devonian to Neogene) with a unique gas-water contact. The lithologies encompass cataclased granite, gneiss, schists, quartzites, dolomites, limestones and grainstones. Source rocks were generated in lacustrine organic facies and migration occurred in the Late Miocene to Pliocene. Reservoir gas includes 4.5–15.7% C2+, but also non-hydrocarbon components.

Analysed porosity data were approximated with a normal-distribution curve in lithofacies I, II and III, making it possible to calculate mean and variance easily by descriptive statistics. Moreover, gas production and effective thicknesses generally can be linked through a linear trend. However, significant deviations in the expected increased production rate with regard to greater reservoir thickness are observed for particular wells. This is a result of locally abrupt changes in effective porosities and permeabilities, and the size of the drainage area along the main fault zones. These faults resulted in significant compartmentalization of the field. Furthermore, owing to significant facies variations, permeability and porosity gradually change, especially in the vertical direction.

Significant reserves of condensate (3 × 106 m3) and gas (43 500 × 106 m3) with a high recovery rate of 71% make this field significant for geological reservoir models. The well-established geological model for this field and its stable high pressure have maintained production rates at a present level of approximately 2900 m3 gas and 165 m3 condensate per day, thus providing a valuable example for other large heterogeneous reservoirs in the Pannonian Basin.

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