Abstract

Three production scenarios have been simulated for three displacement mechanisms using three lithofacies models built at two scales (fine and coarse) from a 2D outcrop analogue. Analysis of the flow simulation results and the associated seismic modelling investigate the dependence of the time-lapse response on the lithofacies model and the vertical grid block size. Elastic attribute quantification from coarse-grid models requires a decision on the type of fluid saturation distribution (uniform or patchy) within the coarse-grid blocks. Here, empirical relations for scaling up the fluid bulk modulus are developed which, when inserted into standard Gassmann calculations, permit calibration of the response for the coarse-grid block model from the finer-scale model. At the coarse scale, fluid saturation changes during water injection and pressure depletion can be represented adequately by these relations but, for gas injection, it appears necessary to refer back to the fine-scale models. For the case of gas injection they cannot be generalized readily for each different lithofacies model and are thus observed to be outcrop dependent.

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