The term “ore deposit” has a specific meaning in the geological literature (Section 1), being a mass of rock that contains a useful element, compound or mineral with a grade (concentration) and total amount sufficiently high that the material can be mined economically. Copper, Au and Fe are the most important metals in terms of value of global production (Fig. 2.1a). As explained in Section 1, ore deposits are an important subset of the broader term “mineral deposits”, which include natural concentrations of elements or minerals. Metals and minerals become concentrated by many processes into a wide variety...

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