Fluids in the crust may be locally-sourced and/or indigenous to the enclosing rocks. Examples include pore waters in sedimentary rocks or fluids released by dehydration reactions or exsolved from melts. In addition to the fluids that are buried with their host sediments or released from nearby minerals or melts, fluids can also be externally sourced, for example by deep-penetration of surface waters or by migration from relatively highly-pressured reservoirs, such as deep basins, into underlying or adjacent rocks with lower hydraulic heads. Magmas derived from the lower crust or mantle, especially those generated above the subducting oceanic lithosphere, provide a...

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