Based on the pervious sections dealing with observational, experimental, and modelling efforts applicable to understanding the ocean-atmosphere-carbonate sediment evolution during the Phanerozoic Eon, in this section we integrate the information into a consistent picture of that evolution. As mentioned previously, geological and biological processes have acted in concert to alter atmospheric and seawater chemistry during the Phanerozoic Eon. Stanley and Hardie (1998, 1999, Stanley et al., 2002; see also Morse and Mackenzie, 1990) concluded that the Phanerozoic long-term oscillations in the carbonate mineralogy of calcifying organisms that produced massive skeletons, large reefs, or voluminous bodies...

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