In this section we investigate the changes in the CO2-carbonic acid system of seawater as coupled to atmospheric CO2 variations and weathering inputs from land during the Phanerozoic Eon based mainly on modelling efforts. We recognise the fact that modelling has its drawbacks as expressed in the phrase “garbage in, garbage out”, but modelling constrained by both observational data and experimental information is in our opinion the most robust approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems like the Earth’s exogenic system or ecosphere, including its ocean and atmosphere. For Fred these efforts in modelling the Earth’s...

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